In 2015, USAID TB CARE II project began an initiative to address TB in miners in the Southern African Region. The overall objective is to improve detection and management of TB and other co-morbidities among the mine workers and their families. This would also help to control the spread of TB and reduce new incidences of TB. Mine workers are exposed to a multitude of factors that compound their risk of TB infection, including working conditions (prolonged exposure to silica dust, poor ventilation), exposure to occupational hazards, socio-economic factors (cramped and unsanitary living conditions, limited access to health services), and disease burden (co-exposure to HIV, silicosis, or both). TB and silicosis have long been recognized as occupational diseases. The risk of a person with silicosis developing TB is 2.8 to 3.9 times higher than that in healthy controls.